This book is the first to attempt a comprehensive social history of working-class life and politics in twentieth-century Australia. It is set in the colourful Melbourne suburb of Richmond; but as ‘Akenfield’ is one English village and also ‘every’ English village, so too, can ‘Struggletown’ stand for every Australian working-class community. The power of this book springs from the originality of its conception. It explores the impact of history on private experience by following a generation born under the lingering blight of the 1890s depression. They see two world wars, the even greater economic disasters of the 1930s, the post-war boom, and take the full brunt of the first wave of non-British immigration. Here is the daily life of ordinary men and women celebrated as the very stuff of serious history. These are not even the familiar heroes of the political stage or the trade union, these are the heroes and heroines of the public bar, the kitchen, the factory floor, the corner store, the back lanes, the ‘outer’, the labour ward. They are ourselves, our parents, our grandparents. There are moments of high comedy and deep shame; of courage, generosity, love, intelligence, self-discipline; but also, of bigotry, racism, wickedness and silliness. Here is the Australian working-class in all its diversity. There are rich literary veins in political history, religious differences, sexual conflicts and the tensions between the ‘rough’ and the ‘respectable’. If poverty and obscurity often bring out the best in private people, too often they also seem to bring out the worst in their public representatives. Richmond had been one of the cradles of the labour movement and the book throws new light on working class reactions to World War One and on the great Labor split of 1955. But Richmond has also earned notoriety for Tammany Hall municipal politics and the author does not shrink from exploring the seamy understory of Labor politics. (cover flap)
Table of contents vii. List of illustrations ix. Conversions xi. Preface p1. 1900-1914: Chapter 1: Birthplace p7. The place p7. The people p14. The economy p29. The politics p35. Chapter 2: Childhood p43. The family home p43. The Edwardian baby p48. Mothers and fathers p51. Play p64. School p71. 1914-1926: Chapter 3: War and peace p89. Richmond goes to war: 1914-1918 p89. Peace and problems: 1919-1926 p105. Chapter 4: Youth p120. Work p120. Morals p129. Fun p138. 1927-1939: Chapter 5: Depression and decay p151. Crisis: 1927-1930 p151. Sepsis: 1931-1934 p161. Convalescence: 1935-1939 p171. Chapter 6: Young marrieds p181. The Depression and private life p181. Marriage and childbirth p200. 1939-1955: Chapter 7: War and peace II p213. War and welfare: 1939-1945 p213. ‘Roads, rats and rancidity’: 1946-1955 p226. Chapter 8: Middle life p242. Making good p242. Going bad p257. 1956-1965: Chapter 9: Death and rebirth p271. Chapter 10: Old age and reflection p288. Postscript: Nemesis p298. Notes p301. Index p313.
A typical Richmond family of 1937 (front cover). Map: Richmond between the wars p10. Illustrations between pages 36 and 37: ‘Richmond Hill’, the Henty home, now demolished. Church Street and St Ignatius’ Church, 1939. Loughnan Street (West Ward) at the foot of Richmond Hill, showing an early cottage and honouring on of Richmond’s great Labor families. ‘Doonside’, Burnley Street, the birthplace and family home of Dame Nellie Melba, later demolished to make way for industry. Richmond Terrace (West Ward) in 1984, restored to middle-class elegance. The Yarra River as friend, canoeing near the Twickenham ferry jetty. Swan Street in 1910. The Yarra River as foe: flooding in 1891 at what is now the intersection of Punt Road, Brunton Avenue and Stewart Street. 4-8 Mary Street, this low and dark brick terrace was rented out by absentee landlords until the 1950s; in the Edwardian period, such houses catered for those on or below the margin of respectability. 1-7 Mary Street: these detached wooden cottages attained respectability rather earlier than the brick terrace opposite; tenants stayed longer and owner-occupiers appeared earlier. 36 Mary Street, this corner dwelling became a dairy run by tenants in 1941 and the business passed into private hands in 1951, it is now a milk bar where Greek is spoken. 16 Mary Street, this handsome house was a contribution to the Edwardian boom, built in 1913, it acquired an owner-occupier in 1916. Aerial view of the Bryant and May Factory amidst the urban blight of south Richmond, 1939. Detached wooden cottages in Chestnut Street behind Bryant and May in 1984: relics of south Richmond’s residential past. The corner of White Street and Dunn Street, south Richmond, in 1984; this terrace faces the elevated railway line and may have been one of the ‘dingy and crowded’ terraces seen by the squatter politician on his journey to the city in 1906; the barber shop retains its wooden shutters specializes in haircuts for pensioners. Berry Street in 1984, this narrow street in the shadow of Richmond Hill is one of the few streets left which can evoke the atmosphere of the old Richmond slums. The former Gardeners’ Arms Hotel at the corner of Rose Street and Brighton Street, in its nadir as a boarding house. The Gardeners’ Arms restored as a private residence and valued in 1981 at $225,000. Swan Street eateries in 1982: Vietnamese restaurants and shops are entering the Richmond scene. Illustrations between pages 196 and 197: Washday for a Richmond mother of seven in 1936. Tubs for sponge baths due to no bathroom in the house, 1946. Mother and two boys doing their washing at the gully trap, 1946. Care-worn young woman wrings her hands as she poses by the pitiful corrugated shanty that is the bathroom for this house, 1936. ‘Slum kids’ playing in the gutter, 1946. ‘Slum kids’ sharing a bed on the front verandah, 1946. Illustrations between pages 228 and 229: Frank Tudor MHR (seated sixth from left) with the Combined Richmond State Schools Old Boys’ Association in 1915, John Brown is third from right in the middle row. E.J. ‘Ted’ Cotter MLA. Prime Minister James Scullin and his wife, 1929. Dr David Roseby (Rosenberg). C.A. ‘Con’ Loughnan as seen by the ‘Richmond Guardian’ in 1925 [caricature]. J.A. ‘Jimmy’ Loughnan JP on his retirement in 1978 from the Richmond City Council after 45 years as a councillor and a record five terms as mayor. The communion breakfast in the presence of Archbishop Daniel Mannix to mark the Golden Jubilee of the Men’s Sodality of Our Lady, Richmond, 1935. Stan Keon MHR being congratulated by Frank Scully on his election for Yarra in 1949. Cr Gus Coloretti as mayor of Richmond with councillors Peg Slattery and Maurie Sheehy MLC in 1953. ‘Keon traitor to ALP’ graffiti on a factory wall in Stewart Street, a scar of the Split still visible in 1984. Jim Cairns MHR in 1956 talking to a mother of six who had just been evicted from her Highett Street home. Cr Geoff O’Connell, mayor of Richmond 1979-82, stands by the portraits of his uncle, G.J. ‘Jack’ O’Connell MLC and of his father, P.V. ‘Paddy’ O’Connell; Charles Eyres, the former Town Clerk, is pictured beneath the mayor. Jack ‘Captain Blood’ Dyer and his public in 1945. Jack ‘Skinny’ Titus in his prime. Portrait of the author, Janet McCalman and short biography (back cover flap).
NAMES FROM THE INDEX:
A’Beckett family. G.R. Admans. Andrew Alexander. Ben Alexander. Moses Alexander. Miss Rose Allen. Sir William Angliss. Frank Anstey. J.H. Archer. Steve Bagley. Alan Bain. Jenny Baines. Sergeant Ball VC. H.J. Barcelo. Mary Barkald. F. Oswald Barnett. Daniel Barrett. E. Barry. W.P. Barry. Miss Beater. John Bedggood. H.H. Bell. C.J. Bennett. G.H. Bennett. W.I. Bennett. Thomas Biggs. C.C. Blazey. Ernie Boland. Dr W.S.F. Bottomley. Francis Bourke. Dr Boyd. ‘Jack’ Brady. Dr Bransom. Father Brennan. Miss Brennan. Dr Albert Bretherton. Richard Buckley. Grace Buller. Ida Buller. Cr Burgess. Professor Sir Cyril Burt. Professor N.G. Butlin. Gwen Cairns. J.F. Cairns. Bernard Callinan. A.A. Calwell. J. Carmichael (caterer). Dr W.D. Carnegie. ‘Carney’. Cr Carter. Mrs Bob Charles. J.B. Chifley. Chong Lee. Laurie Cohen. Leo Collins. Rev Wilfred L. Collins. A.E. Coloretti. Mrs Fanny Conlon. Private Thomas Cooke VC. George Coppin. John Corry. E.J. Cotter. Edwin Crawcour. H.M. Cremean. J.L. Cremean. Cremean family. Thomas Cress. R.A. Crouch. John Curtin. ‘Snowy’ Cutmore. Dr J. Dale. Cr Davies. H. Davine. Mrs C.W. Davis. Herbert Davis. John C. Davis. Alfred Deakin. Dr Mary De Garis. Rev F. Delbridge. Albert and Edward Dennert. Rev Joseph Docker and family. Lucy Dolan. Paddy Donnelly. Tom Donnet. Ray Donovan. Jack Dyer. Billy Eddy. Eddy family. Doug Elliott. Charlie Evans. H.V. Evatt. Carl Eyres. Charles Eyres. Cr Fear. Senior Constable Feldtman. ‘Figaro’ of the ‘Richmond Guardian’. Rev W.H. Fitchett. Chris Fitzgerald. Bert Flanagan. Father Flynn. Alf Foster. George Frank. Corporal Gainge. Sid Gibb. Father Godwin. Jack Godwin. Professor Douglas Gordon. Patrick Griffen. Tom Hafey. Phillip Halfpenny. Frank Hardy. R.J. Hawke. Frederick Hayden. Dr Haynes. Heagney family. Mrs Hemphill. Henty family. Mary Hoare. E.J. Hogan. Clyde Holding. E.J. Holloway. Albert Huckerby. ‘Checker’ Hughes. Mr and Mrs G.E. Hughes. W.M. Hughes. John Hunter. Robert Hunter. Private Walter Hutchings. Roy Jackson. Charles Jago. Hughie James. Jaques Brothers. Alice Jenkinson. G.F.A. Jones. Dr M.A. Jones. Maurice Joyce. Mr Keat. Annette Kellerman. Ann ‘Ma’ Kelly. Cr Kemp. P.J. Kennelly. Squire Kennon. L. Kenny. Wilfrid Kent Hughes. Mr S.M. Keogh. S.M. Keon. Mr Kiernan. Dr Lucy Kilvington. Herbert King. Dr Truby King. Constable Koetsveld. Bertha Laidler (Mrs Walker). Lalor family. Rev G.E. Lamble. J.D. Lang. Dave Langdon. Clements Langford. Jack Lazarus. Laurie L’Estrange. L’Estrange family. Dave Lewis. Serge Liberman. R.H. Lightfoot. J.J. Liston. Bruce Longfield. Bryan Loughnan. C.A. Loughnan. J.A. Loughnan. R.I. Loughnan. Loughnan family. Love and Lewis. Love and Pollard’s. Mr Justice Lowe. Wendy Lowenstein. Cr Lynch. J.A. Lyons. Patrick Macauley. Adam McConchie. McConchie family. Dr D.F. MacGillicuddy. Dr M.P. MacGillicuddy. Judge McIndoe. – McKinnon. Corporal F.J. Maher. George Male. Mr and Mrs William Malone. Archbishop Daniel Mannix. Karl Marx. Miss Ivy May. Dame Nellie Melba. R.G. Menzies. Jack Miller. Ken Miller. A.C. Mitchell. Mrs A.C. Mitchell. David Mitchell. Nurse Hannah Mitchell. George Montgomery. Bill Moran. Annie Morcombe. Mother Josephine FCJ. C.C. Mullen. David Murphy. Sidney Myer. Rev Charles Neville. Lizzie Newbold. Alastair Nicholson. Vera Nixon. Bernie O’Connell. Geoffrey ‘Wingy’ O’Connell. G.D. O’Connell. G.J. ‘Jack’ O’Connell. P.V. ‘Paddy’ O’Connell. O’Connell family. P.J. O’Connor. G.P. O’Day. King O’Malley. Georgina O’Meara. Dick and Marie O’Riordan. Professor Osborn. H. Palling. Adela Pankhurst. T. Parkinson. Paton and Baldwin. Senator Pearce. Ida Pender. Private C.S. Penn. W. Perrin. Horace Petty. Horatio Phelan. Mickey Powell. John Powles and Robert Birrell. Professor Wilfred Prest: see University of Melbourne Social Survey. Sergeant Pulford. Robert Redlich. Lou Richards. H.L. Roberts. Charles Edward Robinson. Mary Rogers. Dr David Rosenberg (Roseby). Lindsay Russell. Cr Ryan. Ronald Ryan. T. Ryan. Ted Sanders. B.A. Santamaria. Ivy Schilling. Mrs E. Schofield. J.H. Scullin. F.R. Scully. Cr Sheedy. Maurice Sheedy. S.E. Simpson. Dr Singleton. Mr Skewes. Monica Slattery. Peg Slattery. Mr Smith (of the Richmond Unemployed Association). Fred Smith. R.H. Solly. Nellie Stewart. Henry Stokes. Dr Marie Stopes. Vic Stout. Constable Strahan. Cr Strahan. Strang brothers. Jack Street. Cr Sutch. C.R. Syle. Louis Tammie. J.P. Tatnall. Leslie ‘Squizzy’ Taylor. Paul Thompson. Ernie Thornton. Jack Titus. Ma Titus. Mrs F. Tomkins. Wally Towers. William Arthur Trenwith. Frank Tudor. Herbert Tye. George Vesper. Lorna Vesper. HRH the Prince of Wales. Jim Walsh. Tom Walsh. Gordon Webber. Madame Weigall. Rev L.L. Wenzel. Hugo Wertheim (and piano factory). W.W. Williams. Bill Woodfull. Richard Wynne. John Wren. John Young (talent school). Private R.W. Young. Dr Isabel Younger (Ross).
FULL INDEX available on library computers: Electronic resources \ Indexes \ Richmond
PLACENAMES, INSTITUTIONS etc., FROM THE INDEX:
Abattoirs. Abbotsford. Aborigines. Abortion. Accidents (road). Adolescence and maturity: see also Sexuality; Work. Alcohol: general; abuse: see also Class; Liquor lobby; Prohibition. Alexander’s Menswear Store. American servicemen. Anderson’s Pty Ltd. Anti-communism: see Communism. Anti-conscription: see Wars. Anti-Compulsory Service League. Armistice. Australia-Soviet Friendship League. Australian Council of Trade Unions. Australian Imperial Force. Australian Knitting Mills (Yarra Falls). Australian Labor Party (ALP): general; Victorian Central Executive; interventions by; Richmond branches of: Central; East Richmond; North Richmond; South Richmond; West Richmond; and elections: Federal; State; Municipal; and conscription; and State Aid to Church Schools; splits in; Industrial Groups and; and Catholics; Keon’s crusaders; and ‘Socialization Objective’; and Richmond ‘Machine’; factions, family power and nepotism; pre-selections; branch stacking and improprieties; electoral malpractices; suspensions of party members; Unemployment Committee: see also Communism; Democratic Labor Party; Richmond City Council. Australian Legion. Australian Natives Association (ANA). Australian Paper Mills. Baby bonus. Baby farming. Baby Health Centres. Ball’s Corner Store. Balwyn. Bank nationalization. Basic wage: general; Royal Commission into. Baths (Richmond municipal). Bell and Company. Bentleigh. Birth rates. ‘Bludging’. Bolte government. Boot and shoe manufacturing. Bosisto’s Eucalyptus Oil Factory. Boulevard. Box Hill. Breast-feeding. Bridge Road Traders’ Association. Briggs mob. Brighton. British Australasian Tobacco. British Medical Association. Brockhoff’s biscuit factory. Brunswick. Bryant and May factory. Bubonic plague scare. Builders’ Labourers Union. Building regulations: see Richmond City Council. Building societies. Building trade. Burnley. Burnley Progress Association. Cain governments. Camberwell. Canterbury. Capitalism. Casual poor: see Class: the rough; Seasonal economy. Catholic Church and politics: see also ALP; DLP; Sectarianism. Catholic Federation. Catholic Workers’ Association. Caulfield Repatriation Hospital. Central Relief Board. Chadstone. Challingworth’s Iron Foundry. Chamber of Commerce. Changi prison. Chaperonage. Charities: see also Ladies’ Benevolent Society. Cherub Shoe Factory. Chifley government. Child death: see also Health; Infant mortality. Child endowment: general; Royal Commission into (1929). Childbearing: general; childbirth experiences. Childhood trauma. Chinese. Churches: see Religion. Class: structure; elite; Labor elite; middling or ‘uneasy’ class; working-class respectables and respectability; economic respectability; respectability and cleanliness; respectability and 1955 ALP Split; the casual poor or ‘rough’; tension between respectable and rough; class relations; cultural hegemony; welfare state and social engineering; class and slum abolition; class-consciousness; class and class traitors; class-consciousness in working-class conservatives; class and frustration; class and self-confidence; class stigma; stigma against the unemployed; class and conscription; class and drink; class and education; class and football; class and sectarianism. Clothing. Clothing trade. Coles’ Stores. Collingwood. Community: general; street community; social isolation and community; conflict and gossip in the community. Community singing: see also Music. Communist Party and communists: general; anti-communism; Communist Party Dissolution Bill; Royal Commission into … the Communist Party of Victoria. Contraception: see also Marriage; Sexuality. Convent of the Good Shepherd, Abbotsford. Conversation. Cork Factory. Corruption: see ALP; Richmond City Council. Cost of living: see also Basic wage; Poverty. Country Party. Country Roads Board. Courting: see also Sexuality; Gender. Cricket. Crime: general; organized. Crimes Act. Dairies. J. Dale and Co. Dancing. Dancing schools. Deepdene State School. Democratic Labor Party (DLP). Demonstrations. Dental health. Dentists. Depressions: national effects of; depressions in Richmond; depression experiences, alienation; suffering; psychological effects of depression; the respectable unemployed; political consciousness and the depression; the depression and gender roles; the depression and crime; survival techniques; finding work in the depression; recovery from the depression: see also Class; Richmond City Council; Richmond Unemployed Association; Unemployed Workers’ Movement; Unemployment and unemployment relief. Deserted wives: see also Marriage. ‘Deserving and undeserving poor’: see also Class. Destitution, Royal Commission into the Causes of (1927): see also Poverty. Dimmey’s (Dimelow and Gaylard’s Model Store). Disabilities: see Health. Divorce: see also Marriage. Domestic violence: see Family life. Douglas Credit. Drug addiction. Dunlop Rubber company. Dunstan government. Eccentrics. Economic growth: see also Depressions, recovery from. Edithvale. Education: general; syllabus; education and class; secondary education; education and religion; scholarships; school exemption certificate: see also Schools; Poverty; Childhood trauma. Entertainment. Ethnic minorities: general; tension between old and New Australians: see also Immigration; Race thinking; War, persecution of enemy aliens in. Evictions. Exploitation in the workplace: see Work. Factories and Shops Law, Royal Commission into (1902-3). Factory conditions: see Work. Factory recreation and work picnics. Failure: see Gender. Fairfield. Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital. Family expenditure: see also Cost of living. Family life: general; extended families; love; discipline; spoiling children; violence in the family: see also Gender; Marriage; Parenting; Sexuality; Childbearing: Education. Fatherhood: see Parenting. Fellmongering: see also Tanneries. Firearms. Fires and insurance. Fitzroy. ‘Flappers’. Food and emotion: see also Nutrition. Food processors and jam factories. Football: general; and class; and women: see also Richmond Football Club. Ford Motor Company. Foster children. Friendly societies and lodges. Fusion Party. Gambling: general; starting price bookmakers; gambling and women: see also Off-Course Betting, Royal Commission into. Gaol. Gender: general; female roles; married women working; female emancipation; male roles; masculine failure; matriarchy and failure; role reversal; tomboys: see also Marriage; Parenting; Pub culture; Sexuality. General Motors. Gentility by association: see also Class. Ghettos. Gilbey’s (company). Glenhuntly. Glory boxes: see also Courting. Great Britain. Guest’s biscuit factory. Gymnasium, Richmond municipal. Harding’s Crumpets. Harvester Judgment. Hawthorn. Hawthorn Tea Gardens. Head’s Store. Health and ill health: general; health and life expectancy; infectious diseases; accidents in childhood; chronic illness; disabilities; health and housing: see also Childbearing; Infant care; Infant mortality; R.C.C. health administration. Health care and social class: see also Welfare State. Hegemony, middle-class: see Class; Education; Welfare State. Henderson Poverty Inquiry. Henry Buck’s store. ‘Herald’ (newspaper). Hibernian Society. Hoadley’s Chocolates. Hobbies. Hogan government. Holidays and holiday pay. Hollywood, effects of. Home Defence Forces. Horse-racing: see also Gambling; Melbourne Cup; Richmond Racecourse. Horticultural College, Burnley. Hospital Employees’ Association. Hospitals: general; Bethesda Hospital; Mercy Hospital; Queen Victoria Hospital; Royal Women’s Hospital; St Vincent’s Hospital: see also Health care. Hotels: general; Anchor and Hope Hotel; Central Club Hotel; Cherry Tree Hotel; Great Britain Hotel; Railway Hotel; Rising Sun Hotel; Swan Hotel; Vine Hotel: see also Alcohol; Pub culture; Gender. Hours of work: see Work conditions. Housework and home amenities: food preparation and kitchens; bathing and laundering; sleeping arrangements. Housing: general; home owners; landlords; rents; building societies; housing shortages; slums; slum abolition: see also Class; Oswald Barnett; Victorian Housing Commission. Housing Investigation and Slum Abolition Board. Housing of the People, Royal Commission into (1914). Immigration: see also Race thinking; Refugees. Imperial Chemical Industries. Incomes. Industrial accidents and illnesses. Industry in Richmond: general; encroachments of into residential areas. Infant care. Infant Life Protection Act. Infant mortality. Infant Welfare Movement. Ireland and Irish nationalism. Irish Home Rule. Irish-Ireland League. ‘Irish Town’. Japan. Jaques Brothers. Julius Kayser. Kellogg’s. Kennon’s Tannery. K.M. Factory. Knitting industry. Ladies’ Benevolent Societies. Ladies’ Benevolent Society, Richmond. Lady Talbot Milk Institute. Lamson Paragon. Lantern Bearers Boys and Girls Club. Larrikins: see Pushes. Lawyers. Leggett’s Ballroom. Leggett’s Products. Liberal-Country Party Coalition. Liberal Party. Liberal voters: see Class. Libraries. Licensed Victuallers’ Association. Liquor lobby. Literacy. Loyal Orange Lodge. Luna Park. McKinnon (suburb). Mahony Street, the ‘Valley of Death’. Make-up. Maples Store. Marriage: general; weddings; shotgun marriages; marriage rate; happiness in marriage; misery and conflict in marriage; marriage in the Depression; marriage in World War Two; death of spouse: see also Courting; Gender; Sexuality. Marshall’s Shoes. Mary Street (Centre Ward). Match factories. Maternal education. Matriarchy: see Gender. May Day. Medical profession. Dame Nellie Melba Free Kindergarten. City of Melbourne. Melbourne City Council. Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). Melbourne Cup. Melbourne Electric Supply Company. Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works. Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramways Board. Mental illness. Mentone. Menzies government. Metal trades. Midwives. Milk and pure milk schemes. Moorabbin. Moran and Cato. Motherhood: see Parenting. Motor bikes. Motor cars. The Movement. Municipal Employees’ Union. Music. Myer Emporium. Myths and legends. Neglected Children, Department of. Nestle’s. New Australians, tension between and Old Australians. New Theatre. No-Conscription Fellowship. Nursing. Nutrition: see also Food and emotion; Health. Obsessional cleaning neurosis: see also Class. Off-Course Betting, Royal Commission into (1959). Old age: and poverty; and loneliness; and resentment towards the young. Olympic Games (1956). Operative Fellmongers’ Union. Oral history. Ormond (suburb). Orphans: see also Neglected children; Foster children. Overlain babies (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome). The Palais. Parenting: general; fathers: devoted; feckless; alcoholic; brutal; mothers: devoted; obsessional neurotic; alcoholic; ‘frozen’; brutal; single parents: see also Family life; Gender; Marriage; Sexuality. Parents’ and Citizens’ Schools Picnic. Parks and open spaces: Barkly Gardens; City Reserve; Survey Park; Yarra Park. Paternalism: see Factory recreation and work picnics. Paton and Baldwin. Patriarchy: see Gender. Payment by results. Pelaco shirt factory (Braeside). Pensioners. Peter’s Ice Cream. Philips (company). Plasterers’ Society. PMG Department. Police strike (1923). Policing Richmond. Political Labor Council: see Australian Labor Party. Pollution: general; noise. Port Melbourne. Poverty: general; poverty and education; poverty and health; poverty and premature death; culture of poverty: see also Class. Poverty line. ‘Power without glory’ (book). Prahran. Prahran City Council. Preston City Council. Privacy and lack of: see also Community. Prohibition and prohibitionists. Property ownership: see Housing. Property values. Prostitution. Protean Enterprises Pty Ltd. Protectionism and free trade. Protestant Federation. Protestant loyalism. Pub culture: see also Alcohol; Gender; Hotels; Gambling. Pushes and gangs. Race thinking and xenophobia.: general; cultural isolation and; ‘national efficiency’. Railways: general; railway workers. Reading. Red Cross. Refugees. Regular workers: see Class, respectability. Religion and churches: general; decline of; Sunday Schools; Anglicans: St Stephen’s; St Bartholomew’s; Catholics: the devout; the lapsed; St Ignatius’; Congregationalists; Methodists; Pentecostal Church; Presbyterian Church; Salvation Army; Tabernacle Church; Unitarians; Uniting Church: see also Sectarianism. Rent: see Housing. Repco. Republicanism. Respectability: see Class. Retail trade workers. Returned servicemen. Returned Servicemen’s League (RSL). Richmond: population; topography. ‘Richmond Chronicle’ (newspaper). Richmond City Council (RCC): general history of; administration and finances; administrative incompetence; rates; elections; poor image of; mayoral balls; councillors’ misbehaviour; councillors’ vanity and class stigma; employees’ misbehaviour; allegations of corruption; judicial investigations of corruption; building regulations; RCC and health regulation; RCC and housing; RCC and industrial zoning; RCC and road maintenance; RCC and social welfare; RCC and strikes; RCC in the Depression; RCC and World War One; RCC and World War Two; RCC and anti-Communism; RCC and the crusaders; RCC and the DLP. Richmond Council of Churches. Richmond Cricket Club. Richmond Football Club. ‘Richmond Guardian’ (newspaper). Richmond Hill. Richmond House. ‘Richmond News’ (newspaper). Richmond Progress Association. Richmond Racecourse: general; Racecourse Estate: see Victorian Housing Commission. Richmond Ratepayers’ Association. Richmond Town Hall. Richmond Unemployed Association. Richmond Unemployed Committee. Richmond Union Bowling Club. ‘Richmond Weekly’ (newspaper). Richmond Workingmen’s Club. Road traffic. Rosella Preserving Factory. The ‘rough’: see Class; Seasonal economy. Royal Botanic Gardens. Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind. Russia. Sabbatarianism. St Ignatius’ Loyola Operatic Society. St James’ Old Cathedral. St Stephen’s Harriers. St Vincent de Paul Society. Saunders’ Malt Extract. Schools: condition of; school committees; corporal punishment in; truancy in; State Schools Old Boys Association; unemployment relief in schools; State Schools: Brighton Street State School; Burnley State School; Central State School; Cremorne Street State School; North Richmond State School; Yarra Park State School; Boys’ Technical School; Girls’ Secondary School; Richmond High School; Continuation School; Melbourne Boys’ High School; MacRobertson Girls’ High School; Central schools; private schools: Clifton College; Catholic schools: general; St Ignatius’ School; St Stanislaus and St Louis; Parade Catholic Boys’ College; Xavier College; Vaucluse FCJ Convent; De La Salle College: see also Education. School for Mothers. Seasonal economy. Sectarianism. Sewerage. Sewing machines. Sex roles: see Gender. Sexuality: general; continence and frustration; sexuality in adolescence; shyness and sexuality; modesty; learning the facts of life; extra-marital sex; ‘free love’; chaperonage; sexual offences; sex and unemployment; sex and American servicemen; intolerance of ‘permissiveness’: see also Marriage; Childbearing. Shamrock Brewery. Shoplifting. Shopping. Shorter Working Week, Select Committee into (1935). Six o’clock closing: see also Liquor lobby; Prohibition; Sly grog. Sly grog. Slum Abolition Commission. Slums: see Housing; Victorian Housing Commission. Small Landholders’ Defence League. Smith Street Traders’ Association. Social mobility: upward; downward: see also Class; Education. Socialism: see also Victorian Socialist Party. Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Soldier settlers. Soldiers’ diseases. Soup kitchens. South Melbourne. South Richmond Co-operators. South Richmond Debating Society. South Yarra. Spanish Influenza pandemic. Spiritualists. Sport (other than football): general; at school: see also Cricket; Football. J.W. Stamp Pty Ltd. State Aid to Church Schools. Stigma: see Class. Strikes: see also Unemployment relief. Suburbs, growth and lure of. Suicide. Superannuation. Supermarkets. Surrey Hills. Sustenance: see also Unemployment relief. Sutex Knitting Mills. Sutherland’s (Skipping Girl) Vinegar Factory. Swallow and Ariell factory. Swan Street Traders’ Association. Sweating and outwork: see Work. Tanneries. Taxation. Technical Education: (Fink) Royal Commission into (1900). Teetotalism and temperance: see also Alcohol. Telephones. Television. Theatres: live and vaudeville; cinema. Theft, petty: see also Crime; Shoplifting; Depressions; Survival techniques. ‘Tigers’: see Richmond Football Club. ‘Tocsin’ (periodical). ‘Tombola’ (musical show). Toorak. Trade unions in the workplace. Trades Hall Council. Trades Hall murder. Truancy: see Schools. ‘Truth’ (newspaper). ‘Twenty-two feet’ by-law. Two-up. Tye and Co. Unemployed: see Depressions. Unemployed organizations: general; corruption in. Unemployed Workers’ Movement (UWM): general; persecution of. Unemployment: general; cyclical; statistics for Richmond: see also Depressions. Unemployment relief: general; in schools; rent subsidy; RCC schemes; Mayoress’s Unemployment Relief Fund; Town Hall hand-outs; relief works; Town Hall declared ‘black’; corruption in: see also Depressions; Ladies’ Benevolent Society; Sustenance. Union Can Company. United Australia Party. United Friendly Societies’ Free Dispensary. University of Melbourne (Prest) Social Survey (1941-2). University students. Unmarried mothers. Urban decay. Vagrancy. Vandalism. Venereal disease. Vermin. Vesper’s Labor League. Vickers Ruwolt. Victorian Baby Health Centre Association. Victorian Football League (VFL). Victorian Government. Victorian Housing Commission: general; and compensation; Richmond Racecourse estate; Royal Commission into (1956): see also Housing; Slum Abolition Board. Victorian Railways. Victorian Socialist Party. Victorian Teachers’ Union. Vietnam War. Violence, public: see also Crime; Family life: violence. Wages boards. War: Boer War: World War One: general; casualties; and working class; economy in; industrial conscripts in; enlistment and recruiting for; conscription; referenda; persecution of enemy aliens; conscientious objectors; patriotism; anti-war feeling; servicemen’s experiences; medical health of volunteers; Gallipoli: see also Returned servicemen. World War Two: general; casualties; and working class; civilians’ war; servicemen; patriotism; and economic recovery; war industry workers; Manpower Act; rationing and black market; war savings; and the Americans; prisoners of war; air raid precautions; recruitment; persecution of enemy aliens: see also Welfare State. War brides. Wards and districts: Centre; East; North; South; West: see also Burnley; Yarraberg. Warrandyte. Water supply. Welfare State: general; and social engineering: see also Class: relations; Education; Health. Wet-nursing. Wharf labourers. ‘White Australia’. White-collar workers: see Class, work. Whitlam government. Widowhood. Wilhemina Soccer Club. Willsmere Milk Company. Women in politics. Women in the workforce: see Work. Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Women’s Political Association. Work: general; children’s work; leaving school for work; school exemption certificates; apprenticeships; casual work and seasonal economy; unskilled work; skilled work; retail trade workers; white-collar workers; new technology and dilution; work conditions; hours of work; women in the workforce; exploitation of juveniles and women; sweating: see also Factory recreation and work picnics; Industrial accidents and illnesses; Trade unions in the workplace. Workers’ compensation. Workforce, structure of. ‘Wowsers’: see also Prohibitionists. Xenophobia: see Race thinking. Yarraberg (East Ward). Yarra River. Young Labor Association.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: (in preface p3)
Angus Wishart, founder and secretary of the City of Richmond and Burnley Historical Society. Elma Wishart. James Beament. Harold Blundy. Tom Bradley. Jim Cairns. Irene Chalk. Gus Coloretti. Mary Cranston. Gertie Daly. Ron and Linda Edwards. Rene and Alf Elliott. Grant Forsyth. Mavis Giles. Ray Grace. Jean and Eric Green. Muriel Harris. Thelma Hoffert. Sophus and May Jones. P.J. Kennelly. Laurie L’Estrange. J.A. ‘Jimmy’ Loughnan. Samuel Loy. Emma McIntyre. George Newman. Robert Parker. Margaret Perry. Lil and Alma Pincott. Thelma Roddy. Charles Roseby. Kevin Rush. Doreen Shaw. Frances Shaw. Marshall Slattery. Vi and Henry Tevendale. H.C. ‘Ossie’ Timewell. Len and Hilda Topp. Isabella Wilson. George Winter. Stella Barber. Dr Ian Britain. Geoff Browne. Stephen Henderson. Wendy Lowenstein. Mike Salzberg. Paul de Serville. Eric Timewell. Professor Graeme Davison. Dr F.B. Smith. Dr John Powles. Arthur Lonnquist. Laurie and Helene McCalman. Molly Rimmer. Hyland House. Dr Serge Liberman. La Trobe Library. Carringbush Library. Town Clerk and Rate Collector, Richmond City Council. University of Melbourne Archives. Features Department, Herald and Weekly Times. Al Knight.